Increased regional fractional anisotropy in highly screened attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Peterson DJ, Ryan M, Rimrodt SL, Cutting LE, Denckla MB, Kaufmann WE, Mahone EM
J Child Neurol. 2011 26 (10): 1296-302

PMID: 21628699 · PMCID: PMC3526818 · DOI:10.1177/0883073811405662

Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected at 3.0 Tesla from 16 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 16 typically developing controls, ages 9 to 14 years. Fractional anisotropy images were calculated and normalized by linear transformation. Voxel-wise and atlas-based region-of-interest analyses were performed. Using voxel-wise analysis, fractional anisotropy was found to be significantly increased in the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group in the right superior frontal gyrus and posterior thalamic radiation, and left dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus. No regions showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Region-of-interest analysis revealed increased fractional anisotropy in the left sagittal stratum, that is, white matter that connects the temporal lobe to distant cortical regions. Only fractional anisotropy in the left sagittal stratum was significantly associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. Several recent studies have reported pathological increases in fractional anisotropy in other conditions, highlighting the relevance of diffusion tensor imaging in identifying atypical white matter structure associated with neurodevelopmental processes.

MeSH Terms (14)

Adolescent Anisotropy Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Brain Brain Mapping Child Cognition Disorders Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Female Functional Laterality Humans Image Processing, Computer-Assisted Linear Models Male

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