To determine if glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is associated with brain injury in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), we measured plasma GFAP among cross-sectional groups of unselected children with SCD, subsets of children with SCD and normal brain MRI or MRI evidence of cerebral infarct, healthy pediatric controls, and adults with brain injury. Children with SCD had higher plasma GFAP than healthy pediatric controls (mean concentrations 0.14 ± 0.37 vs. 0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL; P 5 0.003); also, 16.0% (16/100) of children with SCD and cerebral infarct had GFAP elevations above the 95th percentile of healthy pediatric controls (P 5 0.04). Although not statistically significant, children with SCD and cerebral infarct had more elevated GFAP levels than with SCD and no infarct (16/100, 16.0% vs. 14/168, 8.3%; P 5 0.07). Children with SCD and acute brain ischemia had a higher proportion of elevated GFAP than SCD children with normal MRI (3/6, 50% vs.8.3%; P 5 0.01). GFAP was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure in the preceding year and correlated positively with white blood cell count and negatively with age and performance IQ. Plasma GFAP is elevated among children with SCD and may be associated with subclinical brain injury.