BACKGROUND - A multinational clinical trial compared the safety and efficacy of intranasal trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) with intramuscular trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in very young children prior to the 2004-5 influenza season . Wheezing was noted more often in recipients of LAIV and laboratory-confirmed influenza infection was noted more often in recipients of TIV. We sought to determine whether epidemiologic or genetic factors were associated with these outcomes.
METHODS - Atopy surveys and DNA collections were performed in trial participants at two United States sites, Nashville, TN and Boston, MA. DNA samples were genotyped on Illumina Infinium 610 or 660-Quad. Standard allelic tests of association were performed.
RESULTS - At the Nashville and Boston sites, a total of 99 children completed the trial, 6 (1 TIV, 5 LAIV) developed medically attended wheezing within 42 days following vaccination, and 8 (5 TIV, 3 LAIV) developed laboratory-confirmed influenza during the season. Eighty-one surveys and 70 DNA samples were collected. Family history of asthma (p=0.001) was associated with wheezing after vaccination. Of 468,458 single nucleotide polymorphisms tested in the genome-wide association study (GWAS), none achieved genome-wide significance for either wheezing after vaccination or laboratory-confirmed influenza infection.
CONCLUSIONS - Family history of asthma appears to be a risk factor for wheezing after influenza vaccination. Given the limitations of the sample size, our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of performing a GWAS but was not able to determine genetic polymorphisms associated with wheezing after influenza immunization.
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