The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) has been associated with the risk of breast cancer in multiple ethnic populations, and its effect has been suggested to be hormone-dependent. A large, 2-stage, population-based case-control study was conducted in urban Shanghai, China, during the periods of 1996-1998 and 2002-2005. Exposure and genotyping information from 2,073 patients with breast cancer and 2,084 age-matched population controls was available for evaluation of the interactions between FGFR2 polymorphisms and exogenous estrogen exposure in the development of breast cancer. A logistic regression model was used to compute adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of 20 genotyped and 25 imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 22 were significantly associated with breast cancer. Three genotyped SNPs in close linkage disequilibrium, rs2303568, rs3135730, and rs1078806, and an imputed SNP of rs755793 in complete linkage disequilibrium with other 8 SNPs were observed to interact significantly with oral contraceptive (OC) use. The SNP-cancer association was evident only among OC users, and the OC use was only associated with the risk of breast cancer among carriers of these minor alleles at these loci. These findings suggest that genetic variants in FGFR2 may modify the role of OC use in causing breast cancer in Chinese women.