OBJECTIVES - To investigate the role of menstrual, reproductive, and hormonal factors, as well as benign female conditions, on pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS - We analyzed the combined data from 2 Italian case-control studies including 285 female case patients of pancreatic cancer and 713 female controls. All subjects were interviewed by trained interviewers during their hospital stay using similar structured questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models adjusted for selected covariates.
RESULTS - Compared to nulliparae, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.51-1.12) for parous women and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.26-0.85) for women with 4 or more births, in the absence, however, of a significant trend with increasing number of births. Pancreatic cancer risk was also nonsignificantly reduced among women with age at first birth lower than 25 years (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42-1.01). Other factors, including age at menarche and menopause, menopausal status, type of menopause, history of spontaneous and induced abortions, use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, and history of most female benign conditions were not related to pancreatic cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS - This study provides little support for the hypothesis that menstrual, reproductive, or hormonal factors are related to the development of pancreatic cancer.