CXCL5, a member of the CXC family of chemokines, contributes to neutrophil recruitment during lung inflammation, but its regulation is poorly understood. Because the T cell-derived cytokine IL-17A enhances host defense by triggering production of chemokines, particularly in combination with TNF-α, we hypothesized that IL-17A would enhance TNF-α-induced expression of CXCL5. Intratracheal coadministration of IL-17A and TNF-α in mice induced production of CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5, which was associated with increased neutrophil influx in the lung at 8 and 24 h. The synergistic effects of TNF-α and IL17A were greatly attenuated in Cxcl5(-/-) mice at 24 h, but not 8 h, after exposure, a time when CXCL5 expression was at its peak in wild-type mice. Bone marrow chimeras produced using Cxcl5(-/-) donors and recipients demonstrated that lung-resident cells were the source of CXCL5. Using differentiated alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells derived from human fetal lung, we found that IL-17A enhanced TNF-α-induced CXCL5 transcription and stabilized TNF-α-induced CXCL5 transcripts. Whereas expression of CXCL5 required activation of NF-κB, IL-17A did not increase TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Apical costimulation of IL-17A and TNF-α provoked apical secretion of CXCL5 by human ATII cells in a transwell system, whereas basolateral costimulation led to both apical and basolateral secretion of CXCL5. The observation that human ATII cells secrete CXCL5 in a polarized fashion may represent a mechanism to recruit neutrophils in host defense in a fashion that discriminates the site of initial injury.