Novel islet cell, duct cell, and acinar cell markers have been identified by monoclonal autoantibodies (Maab) derived from prediabetic BB rats. Spleen cells from two rats that both developed diabetes after splenectomy were fused with mouse myeloma cells. A cellular immunoradiometric assay for differential reactivity toward the surface of two closely related, insulin- and non-insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell lines was used to select and clone several IgM-producing hybridomas. The supernatants were finally characterized by two-color immunofluorescence with islet hormone antisera on frozen sections of human, monkey, and rat pancreas. Maab EB52 stained PP cells, but also few A cells on rat pancreas. Maab CA812 identified a subpopulation of islet D cells on rat, human and monkey pancreas. Although the CA812-reactive antigen and somatostatin were coexpressed in most D cells in adult rat pancreas, only a few islet D cells were stained in the newborn pancreas. The CA812-reactive antigen was not detected in somatostatin-producing cells in the duct epithelium. Maab H37 and IF5 selectively stained acinar cells in rat, human, and monkey pancreas, whereas Maab DA39 identified the rat ductal epithelium including the scattered endocrine cells of the ducts. In summary, B lymphocytes producing autoantibodies to pancreatic endocrine, exocrine, and ductal markers are present in prediabetic BB rats and can be detected by use of transformed pluripotent islet cells as target. Such B lymphocytes can be immortalized to produce monoclonal antibodies to study their role in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus pathogenesis and to clarify the development of the pancreas.