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Mammalian reoviruses replicate in a broad range of hosts, cells, and tissues. These viruses display strain-dependent variation in tropism for different types of cells in vivo and ex vivo. Early steps in the reovirus life cycle, attachment, entry, and disassembly, have been identified as pivotal points of virus-cell interaction that determine the fate of infection, either productive or abortive. However, in studies of the differential capacity of reovirus strains type 1 Lang and type 3 Dearing to replicate in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, we found that replication efficiency is regulated at a late point in the viral life cycle following primary transcription and translation. Results of genetic studies using recombinant virus strains show that reovirus tropism for MDCK cells is primarily regulated by replication protein μ2 and further influenced by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein, λ3, depending on the viral genetic background. Furthermore, μ2 residue 347 is a critical determinant of replication efficiency in MDCK cells. These findings indicate that components of the reovirus replication complex are mediators of cell-selective viral replication capacity at a post-entry step. Thus, reovirus cell tropism may be determined at early and late points in the viral replication program.