It is becoming increasingly common to use gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) protected by a heterogeneous mixture of thiolate ligands, but many ligand mixtures on AuNPs cannot be properly characterized due to the inherent limitations of commonly used spectroscopic techniques. Using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we have developed a strategy that allows measurement of the relative quantity of ligands on AuNP surfaces. This strategy is used for the characterization of three samples of mixed-ligand AuNPs: tiopronin:glutathione (av diameter 2.5 nm), octanethiol:decanethiol (av diameter 3.6 nm), and tiopronin:11-mercaptoundecyl(poly ethylene glycol) (av diameter 2.5 nm). For validation purposes, the results obtained for tiopronin:glutathione AuNPs were compared to parallel measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) without ion mobility separation. Relative quantitation measurements for NMR and IM-MS were in excellent agreement, with an average difference of less than 1% relative abundance. IM-MS and MS without ion mobility separation were not comparable, due to a lack of ion signals for MS. The other two mixed-ligand AuNPs provide examples of measurements that cannot be performed using NMR spectroscopy.