BACKGROUND - Several clinical studies report increased risk of diabetes mellitus with pharmacologic treatment for hypertension (HTN). HTN genes may modify glycemic response to antihypertensive treatment.
METHOD - The current study examined the association of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 HTN candidate genes with fasting glucose measured at 2, 4, and 6 years after treatment initiation. The study sample included participants free of diabetes at baseline in the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment (GenHAT) study (N = 9309). GenHAT participants were randomized to receive treatment with a diuretic (chlorthalidone), calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (lisinopril). Mixed models for repeated measures were employed to test for gene and pharmacogenetic associations with fasting glucose during follow-up.
RESULTS - Fasting glucose at year 2 increased on average 6.8, 4.8 and 3.0 mg/dl from baseline in the chlorthalidone, amlodipine and lisinopril groups, respectively. Carrying the I allele (rs1799752) of the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.02). Additionally, an ACE promoter polymorphism (-262, rs4291) was associated with lower fasting glucose for the model AA/AT vs. TT, which remained significant after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.001). Finally, a SNP in the α-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1A, rs2228576) modified the association of amlodipine vs. chlorthalidone treatment with fasting glucose (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION - Further examination of these genes and their relationships with cardiometabolic disease could foster development of pharmacogenetic guidelines aimed to prevent increases in fasting glucose during antihypertensive treatment.