To capitalize on the response of tumor cells to XRT, we developed a controlled-release nanoparticle drug delivery system using a targeting peptide that recognizes a radiation-induced cell surface receptor. Phage display biopanning identified Gly-Ile-Arg-Leu-Arg-Gly (GIRLRG) as a peptide that selectively recognizes tumors responding to XRT. Membrane protein extracts of irradiated glioma cells identified glucose-regulated protein GRP78 as the receptor target for GIRLRG. Antibodies to GRP78 blocked the binding of GIRLRG in vitro and in vivo. Conjugation of GIRLRG to a sustained-release nanoparticle drug delivery system yielded increased paclitaxel concentration and apoptosis in irradiated breast carcinomas for up to 3 weeks. Compared with controls, a single administration of the GIRLRG-targeted nanoparticle drug delivery system to irradiated tumors delayed the in vivo tumor tripling time by 55 days (P = 0.0001) in MDA-MB-231 and 12 days in GL261 (P < 0.005). This targeting agent combines a novel recombinant peptide with a paclitaxel-encapsulating nanoparticle that specifically targets irradiated tumors, increasing apoptosis and tumor growth delay in a manner superior to known chemotherapy approaches.
Copyright 2010 AACR.