Reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes formed via the isoprostane pathway disrupt mitochondrial respiration and calcium homeostasis.

Stavrovskaya IG, Baranov SV, Guo X, Davies SS, Roberts LJ, Kristal BS
Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 49 (4): 567-79

PMID: 20472054 · PMCID: PMC2903647 · DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.04.037

Isoketals (IsoKs) are gamma-ketoaldehydes formed via the isoprostane pathway of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are among the most reactive by-products of lipid peroxidation. IsoKs selectively adduct to protein lysine residues and are highly cytotoxic, but the targets and molecular events involved in IsoK-induced cell death are poorly defined. Our previous work established that physiologically relevant aldehydes induce mitochondrial dysfunction (Kristal et al., J. Biol. Chem.271:6033-6038; 1996). We therefore examined whether IsoKs induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Incubation of mitochondria with synthetic IsoKs in the presence or absence of Ca(2+) was associated with alterations in mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential (DeltaPsi), and pyridine nucleotide redox state. IsoKs dose dependently (0.5-4microM) accelerated liver mitochondria swelling induced by low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) or by the prooxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide, and release of cytochrome c, with similar observations in heart/brain mitochondria. The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) inhibitor cyclosporine A delayed IsoK-induced mitochondria dysfunction. The actions of IsoKs are consistent with interactions with cytochrome c, a protein rich in lysine residues. Direct reaction of IsoKs with select lysines in cytochrome c was demonstrated using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, these results suggest that IsoKs may, in part, mediate their cytotoxic effects through induction of the mPT and subsequent activation of downstream cell death cascades.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (13)

Aldehydes Animals Calcium Cell Death Cell Respiration Homeostasis Isoprostanes Lipid Peroxidation Mitochondria, Liver Rats Rats, Inbred BN Rats, Inbred F344 Stereoisomerism

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