Leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) is a potent lipid mediator of inflammation formed by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid. We have previously shown that (i) LTB(4) is generated during infection, (ii) its biosynthesis is essential for optimal antimicrobial host defense, (iii) LT deficiency is associated with clinical states of immunocompromise, and (iv) exogenous LTB(4) augments antimicrobial functions in phagocytes. Here, we sought to determine whether the administration of LTB(4) has therapeutic potential in a mouse model of pneumonia. Wild-type and 5-LO knockout mice were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae via the intranasal route, and bacterial burdens, leukocyte counts, and cytokine levels were determined. LTB(4) was administered via the intraperitoneal, intravenous, and intranasal routes prior to pneumococcal infection and by aerosol 24 h following infection. Leukocytes recovered from mice given S. pneumoniae and treated with aerosolized LTB(4) were evaluated for expression levels of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. Intrapulmonary but not systemic pretreatment with LTB(4) significantly reduced the lung S. pneumoniae burden in wild-type mice. Aerosolized LTB(4) was effective at improving lung bacterial clearance when administered postinoculation in animals with established infection and exhibited greater potency in 5-LO knockout animals, which also exhibited greater baseline susceptibility. Augmented bacterial clearance in response to LTB(4) was associated with enhanced monocyte recruitment and leukocyte expression of p47phox. The results of the current study in an animal model serve as a proof of concept for the potential utility of treatment with aerosolized LTB(4) as an immunostimulatory strategy in patients with bacterial pneumonia.