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CONTEXT - The differential diagnoses of prostatic carcinoma and bladder epithelial neoplasms include several histologic mimics that should be known to avoid misdiagnosis.
OBJECTIVE - To discuss pseudoneoplastic lesions of the prostate and bladder that could potentially be confused with prostatic carcinoma and bladder epithelial neoplasms, respectively, with specific focus on their distinguishing histopathologic features.
DATA SOURCES - Relevant published literature and authors' experience.
CONCLUSIONS - Pseudoneoplastic lesions in the prostate include those of prostatic epithelial origin, the most common being atrophy, adenosis (atypical adenomatous hyperplasia), basal cell hyperplasia, and crowded benign glands, as well as those of nonprostatic origin, such as seminal vesicle epithelium. Such lesions often mimic lower-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma, whereas others, such as clear cell cribriform hyperplasia and granulomatous prostatitis, for example, are in the differential diagnosis of Gleason adenocarcinoma, Gleason grade 4 or 5. Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder include lesions that could potentially be confused with urothelial carcinoma in situ, such as reactive urothelial atypia, and others, such as polypoid/papillary cystitis, where papillary urothelial neoplasms are the main differential diagnostic concern. Several lesions can mimic invasive urothelial carcinoma, including pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia, von Brunn nests, and nephrogenic adenoma. Diagnostic awareness of the salient histomorphologic and relevant immunohistochemical features of these prostatic and urinary bladder pseudoneoplasms is critical to avoid rendering false-positive diagnoses of malignancy.