Th17-driven immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17 signaling in chronic gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that persistently colonizes the human stomach. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking IL-17RA (IL-17RA(-/-)) were orogastrically infected with H. pylori. Differences in bacterial colonization density and gastric inflammation were not apparent at 1 mo postinfection, but by 3 mo postinfection, H. pylori colonization density was higher and mononuclear gastric inflammation more severe in infected IL-17RA(-/-) mice than in infected wild-type mice. A striking feature was a marked increase in gastric B cells, plasma cells, and lymphoid follicles, along with enhanced H. pylori-specific serum Ab responses, in infected IL-17RA(-/-) mice. Fewer gastric neutrophils and lower levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines were detected in infected IL-17RA(-/-) mice than in infected wild-type mice. Gastric IL-17a and IL-21 transcript levels were significantly higher in infected IL-17RA(-/-) mice than in infected wild-type mice or uninfected mice, which suggested that a negative feedback loop was impaired in the IL-17RA(-/-) mice. These results underscore an important role of IL-17RA signaling in regulating B cell recruitment. In contrast to many chronic inflammatory diseases in which IL-17RA signaling promotes an inflammatory response, IL-17RA signaling down-regulates the chronic mononuclear inflammation elicited by H. pylori infection.