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The small heat shock protein, HSPB6, is a 17-kDa protein that belongs to the small heat shock protein family. HSPB6 was identified in the mid-1990s when it was recognized as a by-product of the purification of HSPB1 and HSPB5. HSPB6 is highly and constitutively expressed in smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle and plays a role in muscle function. This review will focus on the physiologic and biochemical properties of HSPB6 in smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; the putative mechanisms of action; and therapeutic implications.