Caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8 are important caspases in the apoptosis pathway and play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. We examined the association between genetic variants in the caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8 genes and risk for endometrial cancer among Chinese women. Genotypes for 1,028 women with endometrial cancer and 1,003 healthy controls were determined with the Affymetrix MegAllele Targeted Genotyping System and Molecular Inversion Probe method. Of 35 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms, four in the caspase-7 gene were in high linkage disequilibrium (rs11593766, rs3124740, rs11196445, and rs11196418) and associated with the risk for endometrial cancer. The AA genotype of rs11196418 [odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.14-0.94] and the G allele of rs11593766 were associated with reduced risk (odds ratio of 0.75 and 95% CI of 0.59-0.96 for carriers of one G allele; odds ratio of 0.70 and 95% CI of 0.24-2.03 for carriers of two G alleles). The AA genotype of rs11196445 (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.99-3.05), the CC genotype of rs3124740 (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.75), and the GG genotype of rs10787498 in the caspase-7 gene (odds ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.16-3.11) were associated with increased risk compared with homozygotes of the major alleles. The gene-disease association seemed to be more pronounced among premenopausal women, although tests for multiplicative interaction between genes and menopausal status failed to reach statistical significance. The GG genotype of rs2705901 in the caspase-3 gene was significantly associated with increased cancer risk compared with the CC genotype (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03-4.95). No association was observed between polymorphisms of the caspase-8 gene and risk for endometrial cancer. These findings suggest that genetic variants in caspase-3 and caspase-7 may play a role in endometrial cancer susceptibility.