The small GTPase Rap1 is implicated in a variety of cellar functions. In this study, we investigated the effect of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on Rap1 activation in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). Rap1 was expressed in RSF, and GTP-bound active Rap1 (GTP-Rap1) was rapidly increased by PGE(2). The effect of PGE(2) was mimicked by an EP2 receptor agonist, an EP4 agonist and a cAMP-elevating agent forskolin with association to the increase of cAMP, but not by an EP1 or an EP3 agonist. RSF expressed the downstream signaling partners of cAMP, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac1) and protein kinase A (PKA). Both 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP (an Epac-specific cAMP analog) and 6-Bnz-cAMP (a PKA-specific cAMP analog) activated Rap1 in RSF. Activation of Rap1 by PGE(2) via cAMP-signaling may play an important role in the articular pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).