OBJECTIVE - To examine the risk factors for urothelial carcinoma (UC) involvement of the prostate in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for bladder cancer, as such involvement has both prognostic and therapeutic implications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - We examined 308 consecutive men from 1998 to 2005 who had RCP for UC of the bladder, with whole-mount processing of their prostate. Prostatic involvement was categorized by site of origin (the bladder or the prostatic urethra) and, in the case of prostatic urethral origin, by depth of invasion, i.e. dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS), involving the prostatic urethra, prostatic ductal invasion or prostatic stromal invasion. The impact of pathological characteristics was evaluated.
RESULTS - In all, 121 (39.3%) patients had some form of urothelial involvement of the prostate, of whom 59 (48.8%) had dysplasia/CIS of the prostatic urethra, 20 (16.5%) had ductal involvement and 32 (26.4%) had stromal involvement. Multivariate analysis showed that bladder CIS (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.6, P = 0.012) and trigonal involvement of bladder tumours (2.0, 1.1-3.7, P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for urothelial involvement of the prostate.
CONCLUSION - There was prostatic involvement with UC in nearly 40% of patients undergoing RCP. In this study CIS and trigonal involvement were independent predictors of risk, but were not adequate enough to accurately identify most patients who have UC within their prostate; further prospective studies are needed to more accurately predict risk factors and depth of invasion.