Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival. Therefore, we compared dietary intake, mainly plant food groups among 382 controls and 478 PC cases (373 incident and 105 prevalent cases). Caucasian controls had significantly higher daily servings of vegetables (3.4 vs. 2.5, P= 0.002) and fruits and/or fruit juices (1.6 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02) compared to African American controls. In Caucasians, incident cases reported lower intake of fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, alpha -carotene, beta -carotene, cryptoxanthin, folate, genistein, daidzein, and fruits and/or fruit juice than controls and/or prevalent cases. In African Americans, incident cases had lower intake of alpha -carotene compared to controls and prevalent cases. Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends. In summary, we demonstrate racial/ethnic differences in dietary intake of plant foods. The significantly higher consumption of protective dietary constituents among prevalent cases compared to incident cases suggests that PC survivors may be amenable to dietary change.