PURPOSE - Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade with tremelimumab (CP-675,206), a fully human anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, was tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in a single dose, dose-escalation phase I trial in patients with solid tumors. This phase I/II trial was conducted to examine safety of multiple doses of tremelimumab, to further assess efficacy, and to identify an appropriate dosing regimen for further development.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Twenty-eight patients with metastatic melanoma received monthly intravenous infusions of tremelimumab at 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg for up to 1 year to determine recommended monthly phase II dose. During phase II, 89 patients received tremelimumab 10 mg/kg once every month or 15 mg/kg every 3 months.
RESULTS - No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in phase I once every month dosing. In phase II, 8 (10%) of 84 response-assessable patients attained objective antitumor responses; best overall objective response was one complete response and three partial responses in each dosing regimen. Most responses were durable (range, 3 to 30+ months). Most frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, rash, and pruritus. Frequency of grade 3/4 AEs was 13% in the 15 mg/kg every 3 months arm and 27% in the 10 mg/kg once every month. Serious AEs were also less frequent in the 15 mg/kg once every 3 months cohort (9% v 23% in 10 mg/kg arm).
CONCLUSION - Multiple infusions of tremelimumab were generally tolerable and demonstrated single-agent antitumor activity. Both phase II regimens generated durable tumor responses. Based on its more favorable safety profile, 15 mg/kg every 3 months was selected for further clinical testing.