A juxtamembrane mutation in the N terminus of the dopamine transporter induces preference for an inward-facing conformation.

Guptaroy B, Zhang M, Bowton E, Binda F, Shi L, Weinstein H, Galli A, Javitch JA, Neubig RR, Gnegy ME
Mol Pharmacol. 2009 75 (3): 514-24

PMID: 19098122 · PMCID: PMC2684905 · DOI:10.1124/mol.108.048744

The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) regulates synaptic dopamine (DA) levels and is the site of action of abused and therapeutic drugs. Here we study the effect of a threonine residue (Thr62 in hDAT) that is highly conserved within a canonical phosphorylation site (RETW) in the juxtamembrane N-terminal region of monoamine transporters. In stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells, expression of T62D-hDAT was reduced compared with hDAT or T62A-hDAT. T62D-hDAT displayed dramatically reduced [(3)H]dopamine up-take but exhibited a higher basal dopamine efflux compared with hDAT or T62A-hDAT, as determined by measurements of [(3)H]dopamine efflux and amperometry. The high constitutive efflux in T62D-hDAT precluded the measurement of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]dopamine efflux, but when dopamine was added internally into voltage-clamped T62D-hDAT cells, amphetamine-induced efflux comparable with hDAT was detected by amperometry. In accordance with findings that Zn(2+) can rescue reduced DA uptake in mutant transporters that are predominantly inward-facing, micromolar concentrations of Zn(2+) markedly potentiated [(3)H]dopamine uptake in T62D-hDAT and permitted the measurement of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux. These results suggest that T62D-hDAT prefers an inward-facing conformation in the transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations. For T62A-hDAT, however, the measured 50% reduction in both [(3)H]dopamine uptake and [(3)H]dopamine efflux was consistent with a slowed transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations. The mechanism underlying the important functional role of Thr62 in hDAT activity suggested by these findings is examined in a structural context using dynamic simulations of a three-dimensional molecular model of DAT.

MeSH Terms (17)

Alanine Amino Acid Motifs Amino Acid Substitution Amphetamine Cell Line Cell Membrane Computer Simulation Conserved Sequence Dopamine Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Humans Models, Molecular Mutation Protein Conformation Thermodynamics Threonine

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