Chloroplast is a typical plant cell organelle where photosynthesis takes place. In this study, a total of 1,808 chloroplast core proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana were reliably identified by combining the results of previously published studies and our own predictions. We then constructed a chloroplast protein interaction network primarily based on these core protein interactions. The network had 22,925 protein interaction pairs which involved 2,214 proteins. A total of 160 previously uncharacterized proteins were annotated in this network. The subunits of the photosynthetic complexes were modularized, and the functional relationships among photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHC I) and light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHC II) could be deduced from the predicted protein interactions in this network. We further confirmed an interaction between an unknown protein AT1G52220 and a photosynthetic subunit PSI-D2 by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Our chloroplast protein interaction network should be useful for functional mining of photosynthetic proteins and investigation of chloroplast-related functions at the systems biology level in Arabidopsis.