Twenty-two iatrogenic vascular injuries caused by resection of tumors with local recurrences or adjuvant chemotherapy were treated over a 42-month period in 11 female and 8 male patients with cancer (58% had documented metastases). Sixteen of 22 vascular injuries were caused by intraarterial administration of chemotherapy (8 emboli; 8 direct catheter trauma), and six were caused by resection of tumors with local invasion. The injuries were extremity ischemia (15 extremities in 13 patients), pseudoaneurysm (4), expanding hematoma (3 injuries in 2 patients). Twenty-two surgical repairs included bypass of severely damaged arteries in five, embolectomy in five, interposition grafts in three, pseudoaneurysm resection and primary repair in three, primary repair of three vascular injuries, and one patch angioplasty. Leg amputation was required in two patients. Seventeen of 19 patients had successful vascular repairs with resolution of preoperative indications for vascular repair without intraoperative or postoperative deaths. Long term follow-up (mean, 17 months) showed no recurrence of vascular problems; however, two patients died of metastatic cancer at 6 and 24 weeks after vascular repair. This study supports an aggressive approach to the management of vascular injuries caused by therapeutic interventions for malignancy despite the presence of metastatic disease.