Reactive electrophiles generated by lipid peroxidation are thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease and other oxidative stress-related pathologies by covalently modifying proteins and affecting critical protein functions. The difficulty of capturing and analyzing the relatively small fraction of modified proteins complicates identification of the protein targets of lipid electrophiles. We recently synthesized a biotin-modified linoleoylglycerylphosphatidylcholine probe called PLPBSO ( Tallman et al. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2007, 20, 227-234 ), which forms typical linoleate oxidation products and covalent adducts with model peptides and proteins. Supplementation of human plasma with PLPBSO followed by free radical oxidation resulted in covalent adduction of PLPBSO to plasma proteins, which were isolated with streptavidin and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Among the most highly modified proteins was apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), which is the core component of high density lipoprotein (HDL). ApoA1 phospholipid adduct sites were mapped by LC-MS-MS of tryptic peptides following mild base hydrolysis to release esterified phospholipid adducts. Several carboxylated adducts formed from phospholipid-esterified 9,12-dioxo-10( E)-dodecenoic acid (KODA), 9-hydroxy, 12-oxo-10( E)-dodecenoic acid (HODA), 7-oxoheptanoic acid, 8-oxooctanoic acid, and 9-oxononanoic acid were identified. Free radical oxidations of isolated HDL also generated adducts with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other noncarboxylated electrophiles, but these were only sporadically identified in the PLPBSO-adducted ApoA1, suggesting a low stoichiometry of modification in the phospholipid-adducted protein. Both phospholipid electrophiles and HNE adducted His162, which resides in an ApoA1 domain involved in the activation of Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and maturation of the HDL particle. ApoA1 lipid electrophile adducts may affect protein functions and provide useful biomarkers for oxidative stress.