Dark lumen MRI colonography detects colonic polyps by minimization of the intestinal lumen signal intensity. Here we validate the use of perfluorinated oil as an intestinal-filling agent for dark lumen MRI studies in mice, enabling the physiological characterization of colonic polyps by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. In control and Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mice with and without pretreatment with oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), polyps as small as 0.94 mm diameter were consistently identified using standard 2D gradient echo imaging (voxel size, 0.23 x 0.16 x 0.5 mm). In serial studies, polyp growth rates were heterogeneous with an average approximately 5% increase in polyp volume per day. In DSS-treated control mice the colon wall contrast agent extravasation rate constant, K(trans), and extravascular extracellular space volume fraction, v(e), values were measured for the first time and found to be 0.10 +/- 0.03 min(-1) and 0.23 +/- 0.09, respectively. In DSS-treated Min mice, polyp K(trans) values (0.09 +/- 0.04 min(-1)) were similar to those in the colon wall but the v(e) values were substantially lower (0.16 +/- 0.03), suggesting increased cellular density. The functional dark-lumen colonography approach described herein provides new opportunities for the noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal disease pathology and treatment response in mouse models.