Janjua NZ, Delzell E, Larson RR, Meleth S, Kristensen S, Kabagambe E, Sathiakumar N
Public Health Nutr. 2009 12 (6)
OBJECTIVE - To identify determinants of low birth weight (LBW) in Karachi, Pakistan, including environmental exposures and nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy.
DESIGN - Cross-sectional study.ParticipantsFive hundred and forty mother-infant pairs. We interviewed mothers about obstetric history, diet and exposure to Pb. We measured birth weight and blood lead level (BLL). We performed multiple log binomial regression analysis to identify factors related to LBW.
RESULTS - Of 540 infants, 100 (18.5 %) weighed 208.7 mg/d), infants of mothers with MUAC less than or equal to the median and dietary vitamin C intake >208.7 mg/d (adjPR = 10.80; 95 % CI 1.46, 79.76), mothers with MUAC above the median and vitamin C intake
CONCLUSIONS - In Pakistan, poor nutritional status and inadequate prenatal care were major determinants of LBW in this setting. Environmental factors including umbilical cord BLL were not significantly associated with LBW.
MeSH Terms (25)Adult Anthropometry Ascorbic Acid Birth Weight Cross-Sectional Studies Environmental Exposure Female Fetal Blood Health Services Accessibility Humans Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Newborn Lead Male Multivariate Analysis Nutritional Status Odds Ratio Pakistan Pregnancy Prenatal Care Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects Prevalence Public Health Risk Factors Urban Population