A heterozygous single base mutation in the human growth hormone (GH) gene (GH-1) was identified in a family presenting with isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD II). Affected individuals have a guanine to adenine transition at the first nucleotide of exon 3 (E3+1 G-->A) that results in exon skipping and production of a dominant-negative 17.5-kDa isoform. We show that the mechanistic basis for exon skipping is due to the unique position of this mutation because it weakens the 3' splice site and simultaneously disrupts a splicing enhancer located within the first seven bases of exon 3. A G-->T mutation at this same position not only affects splicing but also results in a premature stop codon for those transcripts that include exon 3. Thus, mutations that alter the first nucleotide of exon 3 illustrate the various mechanisms by which changes in sequence can cause disease: splice site selection, splicing enhancer function, messenger RNA decay, missense mutations, and nonsense mutations. For IGHD II, only exon skipping leads to production of the dominant-negative isoform, with increasing skipping correlating with increasing disease severity.