Infection imaging became widespread in 1971 with the release of 67Ga citrate. Multiphase skeletal scintigraphy and radiolabeled white blood cells (WBCs) have since become the most widespread clinically used agents for the imaging of infection. A wide variety of other radiolabeled probes are under investigation, based on antibodies, cytokines, assorted proteins and other molecules, alone or in various combinations. However, these latter agents, with a few exceptions, are not routinely used clinically. Radiolabeled ciprofloxacin represents the first attempt to develop an infection-specific imaging agent (most infection-imaging probes localized nonspecifically to inflammation as well), but it has not proven superior to radiolabeled WBCs or 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) PET. Because of the ability to combine exquisite anatomic detail with focal uptake of 18F-FDG, PET-computed tomography has achieved great success in the detection and localization of infection, including in clinically adverse conditions. Despite these advances, at this time an infection-specific imaging agent does not exist.