A prospective multicenter trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow (G-BM) in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A total of 42 children with a median age of 9.8 years (range, 0.8-17 years) were enrolled. Donors with median age of 9.2 years (range, 1.1-22 years) received 5 microg/kg per day of subcutaneous G-CSF for 5 consecutive days. BM was harvested on the fifth day. No donor experienced complications related to G-CSF administration or marrow har-vest. Median nucleated (NC) and CD34 cells infused was 6.7 x 10(8)/kg (range, 2.4-18.5 x 10(8)/kg) and 7.4 x 10(6)/kg (range, 2-27.6 x 10(6)/kg), respectively. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment was at a median of 19 days (range, 13-28 days) and 20 days (range, 9-44 days), respectively. A total of 13 (32%) patients developed grade 2 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 5 (13%) of 40 evaluable patients developed chronic GVHD (3 limited and 2 extensive). Higher cell dose was not associated with increased risk of acute or chronic GVHD. Overall survival and event-free survival at 2 years were 81% and 69%, respectively. Collection of G-BM from pediatric donors is safe, and can result in high NC and CD34 cell doses that facilitate engraftment after myeloablative BMT without a discernable increase in the risk of GVHD.