The host cell protein cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to CA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and promotes HIV-1 infection of target cells. Disruption of the CypA-CA interaction, either by mutation of the CA residue at G89 or P90 or with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine (CsA), reduces HIV-1 infection. Two CA mutants, A92E and G94D, previously were identified by selection for growth of wild-type HIV-1 in cultures of CD4(+) HeLa cell cultures containing CsA. Interestingly, infection of some cell lines by these mutants is enhanced in the presence of CsA, while in other cell lines these mutants are minimally affected by the drug. Little is known about this cell-dependent phenotype of the A92E and G94D mutants, except that it is not dependent on expression of the host factor TRIM5alpha. Here, we show that infection by the A92E and G94D mutants is restricted at an early post-entry stage of the HIV-1 life cycle. Analysis of heterokaryons between CsA-dependent HeLa-P4 cells and CsA-independent 293T cells indicated that the CsA-dependent infection by A92E and G94D mutants is due to a dominant cellular restriction. We also show that addition of CsA to target cells inhibits infection by wild-type HIV-1 prior to reverse transcription. Collectively, these results support the existence of a cell-specific human cellular factor capable of restricting HIV-1 at an early post-entry step by a CypA-dependent mechanism.