We have demonstrated recently that the glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) molecule from the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a TLR4 agonist with proinflammatory effects. Here, we show that GIPL-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity is mediated by at least two pathways: one, where IL-1beta acts downstream of TNF-alpha, and a second, which is IL-1beta- and TNFRI-independent. Moreover, NKT cells participate in this proinflammatory cascade, as in GIPL-treated CD1d(-/-) mice, TNF-alpha and MIP-2 levels are reduced significantly. As a consequence of this inflammatory response, spleen and lymph nodes of GIPL-treated mice have an increase in the percentage of T and B cells expressing the CD69 activation marker. Cell-transfer experiments demonstrate that T and B cell activation by GIPL is an indirect effect, which relies on the expression of TLR4 by other cell types. Moreover, although signaling through TNFRI contributes to the activation of B and gammadelta+ T cells, it is not required for increasing CD69 expression on alphabeta+ T lymphocytes. It is interesting that T cells are also functionally affected by GIPL treatment, as spleen cells from GIPL-injected mice show enhanced production of IL-4 following in vitro stimulation by anti-CD3. Together, these results contribute to the understanding of the inflammatory properties of the GIPL molecule, pointing to its potential role as a parasite-derived modulator of the immune response during T. cruzi infection.