Cytoplasmic remodeling of erythrocyte raft lipids during infection by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Murphy SC, Fernandez-Pol S, Chung PH, Prasanna Murthy SN, Milne SB, Salomao M, Brown HA, Lomasney JW, Mohandas N, Haldar K
Blood. 2007 110 (6): 2132-9

PMID: 17526861 · PMCID: PMC1976375 · DOI:10.1182/blood-2007-04-083873

Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, analyses of raft lipids have remained elusive because detergents interfere with lipid detection. Here, we use primaquine to perturb the erythrocyte membrane and induce detergent-free buoyant vesicles, which are enriched in cholesterol and major raft proteins flotillin and stomatin and contain low levels of cytoskeleton, all characteristics of raft microdomains. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol are depleted in endovesicles while phosphoinositides are highly enriched, suggesting raft-based endovesiculation can be achieved by simple (non-receptor-mediated) mechanical perturbation of the erythrocyte plasma membrane and results in sorting of inner leaflet phospholipids. Live-cell imaging of lipid-specific protein probes showed that phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is highly concentrated in primaquine-induced vesicles, confirming that it is an erythrocyte raft lipid. However, the malarial PVM lacks PIP(2), although another raft lipid, phosphatidylserine, is readily detected. Thus, different remodeling/sorting of cytoplasmic raft phospholipids may occur in distinct endovacuoles. Importantly, erythrocyte raft lipids recruited to the invasion junction by mechanical stimulation may be remodeled by the malaria parasite to establish blood-stage infection.

MeSH Terms (26)

Animals Annexin A5 Blotting, Western Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Endocytosis Erythrocyte Membrane Erythrocytes Flow Cytometry Green Fluorescent Proteins Humans Isoenzymes Liposomes Malaria Mass Spectrometry Membrane Microdomains Parasitemia Phosphatidylethanolamines Phosphatidylglycerols Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate Phosphatidylinositols Phospholipase C delta Plasmodium falciparum Primaquine Type C Phospholipases Vacuoles

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