Selective interference with the CD45RB isoform by mAb (anti-CD45RB) reliably induces donor-specific tolerance. Although previous studies suggest participation of regulatory T cells, a mechanistic understanding of anti-CD45RB-induced tolerance is lacking. We report herein the unexpected finding that tolerance induced by this agent is not established in B cell-deficient mice but can be recovered by preemptive B lymphocyte transfer to B cell-deficient hosts. Using B cells from genetically modified donors to reconstitute B cell-deficient recipients, we evaluate the role of B lymphocyte-expressed CD45RB, T cell costimulatory molecules, and the production of Abs in this novel tolerance mechanism. Our data document an Ab-induced tolerance regimen that is uniquely B lymphocyte-dependent and suggest mechanistic contributions to tolerance development from the B cell compartment through interactions with T cells.