PURPOSE OF REVIEW - This article reviews the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer with an emphasis on studies and developments over the past year.
RECENT FINDINGS - Cystoscopy remains the mainstay in the detection and surveillance of bladder cancer, though efforts continue in the development of urinary bladder cancer markers. Superficial bladder cancer continues to be managed predominantly through transurethral resection with perioperative instillation of chemotherapy recommended for most patients. Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin (including a maintenance regimen) should be used for those at high risk for progression. Muscle invasive disease continues to be managed by radical cystectomy. Research continues on the use of laparoscopy, the effect on patient's health-related quality of life, and the potential role for bladder preservation strategies. The role of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy around the time of cystectomy remains to be resolved. The mainstays of chemotherapy remain methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin, and gemcitabine and cisplatin, but work is ongoing to develop new regimens, especially in patients who cannot take cisplatin.
SUMMARY - Although great strides continue to be made each year in the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer considerably more work needs to be done in order to improve the lives of our patients with this disease.