Erythropoiesis is critically dependent on erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein hormone that is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Hepatocytes are the primary source of extrarenal EPO in the adult and express HIF-1 and HIF-2, whose roles in the hypoxic induction of EPO remain controversial. In order to define the role of HIF-1 and HIF-2 in the regulation of hepatic EPO expression, we have generated mice with conditional inactivation of Hif-1alpha and/or Hif-2alpha (Epas1) in hepatocytes. We have previously shown that inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor pVHL, which targets both HIFs for proteasomal degradation, results in increased hepatic Epo production and polycythemia independent of Hif-1alpha. Here we show that conditional inactivation of Hif-2alpha in pVHL-deficient mice suppressed hepatic Epo and the development of polycythemia. Furthermore, we found that physiological Epo expression in infant livers required Hif-2alpha but not Hif-1alpha and that the hypoxic induction of liver Epo in anemic adults was Hif-2alpha dependent. Since other Hif target genes such phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk) were Hif-1alpha dependent, we provide genetic evidence that HIF-1 and HIF-2 have distinct roles in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes and that EPO is preferentially regulated by HIF-2 in the liver.