Dexrazoxane-associated risk for acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome and other secondary malignancies in pediatric Hodgkin's disease.

Tebbi CK, London WB, Friedman D, Villaluna D, De Alarcon PA, Constine LS, Mendenhall NP, Sposto R, Chauvenet A, Schwartz CL
J Clin Oncol. 2007 25 (5): 493-500

PMID: 17290056 · DOI:10.1200/JCO.2005.02.3879

PURPOSE - Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies 9426 and 9425 evaluated dexrazoxane (DRZ) as a cardiopulmonary protectant during treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We evaluated incidence and risk factors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).

PATIENTS AND METHODS - Treatment for low- and high-risk HD with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and etoposide (ABVE) or dose-intensified ABVE with prednisone and cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC), respectively, was followed by low-dose radiation. The number of chemotherapy cycles was determined by rapidity of the initial response. Patients were assigned randomly to receive DRZ (n = 239) or no DRZ (n = 239) concomitantly with chemotherapy to evaluate its potential to decrease adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes.

RESULTS - Ten patients developed SMN. Six of eight patients developed AML/MDS, and both solid tumors (osteosarcoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma) occurred in recipients of DRZ. Eight patients with SMN were first events. With median 58 months' follow-up, 4-year cumulative incidence rate (CIR) for AML/MDS was 2.55% +/- 1.0% with DRZ versus 0.85% +/- 0.6% in the non-DRZ group (P = .160). For any SMN, the CIR for DRZ was 3.43% +/- 1.2% versus CIR for non-DRZ of 0.85% +/- 0.6% (P = .060). Among patients receiving DRZ, the standardized incidence rate (SIR) for AML/MDS was 613.6 compared with 202.4 for those not receiving DRZ (P = .0990). The SIR for all SMN was 41.86 with DRZ versus 10.08 without DRZ (P = .0231).

CONCLUSION - DRZ is a topoisomerase II inhibitor with a mechanism distinct from etoposide and doxorubicin. Adding DRZ to ABVE and ABVE-PC may have increased the incidence of SMN and AML/MDS.

MeSH Terms (25)

Acute Disease Adolescent Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols Chelating Agents Cohort Studies Enzyme Inhibitors Female Follow-Up Studies Heart Diseases Hodgkin Disease Humans Incidence Leukemia, Myeloid Lung Diseases Male Myelodysplastic Syndromes Neoplasms, Second Primary Neoplasm Staging Osteosarcoma Razoxane Risk Assessment Risk Factors Thyroid Neoplasms Time Factors Topoisomerase II Inhibitors

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