A polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene alters promoter activity and is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kim CH, Hahn MK, Joung Y, Anderson SL, Steele AH, Mazei-Robinson MS, Gizer I, Teicher MH, Cohen BM, Robertson D, Waldman ID, Blakely RD, Kim KS
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 103 (50): 19164-9

PMID: 17146058 · PMCID: PMC1748193 · DOI:10.1073/pnas.0510836103

The norepinephrine transporter critically regulates both neurotransmission and homeostasis of norepinephrine in the nervous system. In this study, we report a previously uncharacterized and common A/T polymorphism at -3081 upstream of the transcription initiation site of the human norepinephrine transporter gene [solute carrier family 6, member 2 (SLC6A2)]. Using both homologous and heterologous promoter-reporter constructs, we found that the -3081(T) allele significantly decreases promoter function compared with the A allele. Interestingly, this T allele creates a new palindromic E2-box motif that interacts with Slug and Scratch, neural-expressed transcriptional repressors binding to the E2-box motif. We also found that both Slug and Scratch repress the SLC6A2 promoter activity only when it contains the T allele. Finally, we observed a significant association between the -3081(A/T) polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that anomalous transcription factor-based repression of SLC6A2 may increase risk for the development of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

MeSH Terms (13)

Alleles Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Base Sequence DNA Gene Expression Regulation Humans Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Polymorphism, Genetic Promoter Regions, Genetic Protein Binding Transcription, Genetic Transcription Factors Zinc Fingers

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