PURPOSE - We review our 20-year experience with salvage radical prostatectomy to determine prognostic variables predictive of oncological control of radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Using a standardized questionnaire we also evaluate outcome data regarding the long-term sexual and urinary effects of salvage radical prostatectomy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Between 1983 and 2002 salvage radical prostatectomy was performed in 51 patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer following definitive radiotherapy. Clinical information was obtained from a prospective database. Quality of life data were collected using the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, a validated, patient administered instrument.
RESULTS - At 5 years 47% of patients were progression-free without androgen deprivation therapy. Among patients with pT2 disease 100% were progression-free at 5 years, compared with 35% of patients with pT3N0 disease or higher and 0% of patients with node positive (pTxN+) disease (p < 0.001). Preoperative PSA 5.0 ng/ml or less was predictive of organ confined disease, and strongly associated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival (p < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Mean urinary function scores for patients with or without an artificial urinary sphincter compared favorably with scores reported after standard, nonsalvage prostatectomy. Sexual dysfunction was nearly uniform in patients undergoing standard salvage radical prostatectomy but implantation of a penile prosthesis was associated with a clinically significant improvement in sexual function.
CONCLUSIONS - When initiated early in the course of recurrent disease, salvage radical prostatectomy provides excellent oncological control of radiorecurrent prostate cancer without the need for androgen ablation. Implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter and inflatable penile prosthesis devices in patients with postoperative urinary incontinence or erectile dysfunction results in significantly improved quality of life parameters.