Transforming growth factor-beta promotes invasion in tumorigenic but not in nontumorigenic human prostatic epithelial cells.

Ao M, Williams K, Bhowmick NA, Hayward SW
Cancer Res. 2006 66 (16): 8007-16

PMID: 16912176 · PMCID: PMC4067141 · DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4451

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a pleiotropic growth factor with actions that are dependent on circumstances, including dose, target cell type, and context. TGF-beta can elicit both growth-promoting and growth-suppressive activities. In normal tissues, TGF-beta generally acts to restrict growth and maintain differentiation. However, during tumorigenesis, changes in TGF-beta expression and cellular responses can promote tumorigenesis. The present study examines the effects of TGF-beta on the nontumorigenic human prostatic epithelial cell line BPH1 and on three derivative tumorigenic sublines BPH1(CAFTD)1, BPH1(CAFTD)3, and BPH1(CAFTD)5. The data show that TGF-beta has different effects on the nontumorigenic and tumorigenic cells. The nontumorigenic cells are growth inhibited by TGF-beta. In contrast, the tumorigenic sublines are not growth inhibited but instead undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in response to TGF-beta. The tumorigenic lines show constitutively elevated levels of phosphorylated Akt, which modulates their response to TGF-beta by blocking Smad3 and p21 nuclear translocation. On TGF-beta stimulation of the tumorigenic sublines, the activated Akt allows the cell to escape cell cycle arrest. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is also involved in TGF-beta-induced EMT, defined here by induction of vimentin expression and enhanced cellular motility. In vivo, tumorigenic cells with constitutively active TGF-beta signaling show increased invasion with EMT, which express vimentin, located specifically at the invasive front of the tumor. These data indicate that following malignant transformation TGF-beta can play a direct role in promoting prostatic cancer and further that these responses are context specific in vivo.

MeSH Terms (12)

Animals Cell Division Cell Line Cell Movement Epithelial Cells Male Mice Mice, SCID Neoplasm Invasiveness Prostate Prostatic Hyperplasia Transforming Growth Factor beta

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