General consensus has yet to be reached with regard to the exact cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The current overview seeks to provide a more comprehensive review of the literature by examining studies that have specifically compared individuals with NF1 to siblings, controls, and/or norms. We also examined results of studies that compared individuals with NF1 with various manifestations to each other. Consistent with previous reviews, no clear cognitive profile emerged; however, greater insight into patterns was obtained. Additionally, future directions for research on NF1 were suggested.