Implantation occurs only in the progesterone (P4)-primed uterus in the majority of species, but little effort has been given to identify P4-mediated molecules in these species. Using hamsters as a model for P4-dependent implantation and three well-known uterine receptivity-associated P4-regulated genes, Indian hedgehog (Ihh), histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), and amphiregulin (Areg), in mice that require ovarian estrogen for uterine receptivity and implantation, our strategy aimed to determine whether P4 regulates uterine expression of these genes in hamsters and whether the event- and cell-specific uterine expression patterns of these genes during the periimplantation period in hamsters follow similarly with their patterns in mice. We report here that P4-mediated Ihh signaling is important for uterine receptivity and implantation in hamsters because uterine epithelial Ihh expression was regulated by P4 and its expression patterns during the periimplantation period of hamsters closely follow its pattern in mice. In contrast, we noted no hormonal regulation of Hdc and Areg in the hamster uterus. However, this did not diminish their importance in hamsters because their expression patterns and functions are event and cell specific during the periimplantation period: whereas Hdc was expressed exclusively in d 4 uterine glands and regulated by the blastocyst, Areg was expressed on the decidual area adjacent to the embryo from d 5 onward and involved in stromal cell proliferation. We conclude that similarities and dissimilarities exist in uterine expression pattern of implantation-related genes, including hormonal regulation and their event-specific importance.