The Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is one of the major CYP450 enzymes catalyzing 4-hydroxylation, an important elimination step for estrogens. Relatively little is known, however, about the impact of this gene on the onset and cessation of menstruation, which are significant milestones in a woman's life and predictors of many hormone related diseases. In this report, we described the association of four SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene, Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser, Leu432Val, and Asp449Asp, with the ages of menarche and menopause, years of menstruation and total number of menstrual cycles. Included in the study were 1958 community controls from two recently completed population-based case-control studies of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. No association was observed between the CYP1B1 polymorphisms and the age of menarche among either pre- or post-menopausal women. Among the women who experienced natural menopause, the three non-synonymous SNPs were significantly associated with menopausal age, years of menstruation, and total number of menstrual cycles. The Gly and Ser alleles of Arg48Gly and Ala119Ser were associated with later menopause, more years of menstruation and more menstrual cycles, while women with allele Val at Leu432Val had a 0.9 year earlier menopause, 1.0 year shorter reproductive span, and 12.6 fewer menstrual cycles than those women without this allele. In conclusion, the results from this study suggested that CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms may be associated with the natural onset of menopause.