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CPSI deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the first, rate-determining enzyme of the urea cycle. Our mutation detection data from this disorder suggest that a significant number of mutant alleles cause RNA instability, most likely through the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. We identified 26 non-consanguinous CPSID patients with an available RNA source (liver tissue or cell line) and screened both genomic DNA and RNA for the identification and classification of mutations. Out of 52 total alleles screened from these patients, 21 (40%) have strong evidence for RNA processing mutations demonstrated by absent/minimal heterozygosity in patient cDNA sequences despite heterozygous genomic changes. These 21 alleles are a heterogenous group primarily composed of splicing defects and frameshifts that form premature termination codons which should subsequently elicit the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. This study provides evidence for the high prevalence of RNA instability mutations in genetic disease and underscores the importance of accounting for them in mutation-screening strategies.