Albuminuria is a cardiovascular and renal risk factor in patients with diabetes, patients with hypertension, and the general population. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with increasing urinary albumin levels, starting at levels that once were considered normal. This association is maintained even after adjusting for numerous other factors. Studies also established that a decrease in albuminuria leads to improvement in both cardiovascular and renal outcomes. These data suggest that urinary albumin should be measured routinely and treated to afford cardiovascular and renoprotection.