In this study, we investigated a potential requirement of two-component signal transduction systems for acid resistance in Helicobacter pylori. In comparison to a wild-type strain, isogenic strains with null mutations in either HP0165 or HP1364 histidine kinases were impaired in their ability to grow at pH 5.0. The growth of complemented mutant strains was similar to that of the wild-type strain. H. pylori DNA array analyses and transcriptional reporter assays indicated that acid-responsive gene transcription was altered in the HP0165 and HP1364 null mutant strains compared to the parental wild-type strain. These results indicate that intact HP0165 and HP1364 histidine kinases are required for acid resistance in H. pylori.