Nutritional and metabolic derangements are highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and patients on renal replacement therapy. These derangements, which can be termed uremic malnutrition, significantly affect the high morbidity and mortality rates observed in this patient population. Uremic malnutrition clearly is related to multiple factors encountered during the predialysis stage and during chronic dialysis therapy. Several preliminary studies suggested that interventions to improve the nutritional status and metabolic status of uremic patients actually may improve the expected outcome in these patients, although their long-term efficacy is not well established. It therefore is important to emphasize that uremic malnutrition is a major comorbid condition in CKD and renal replacement therapy patients, and that all efforts should be made to try to understand better and treat these conditions effectively to improve not only mortality but also the quality of life of chronically uremic patients. In this article we review the current state of knowledge in the field of nutrition and metabolism in all stages of CKD and renal replacement therapy, including kidney transplant. We also address questions that face investigators in this field and suggest where future research might be headed.