Mice infected with reovirus develop abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. Reovirus strain type 3 Abney (T3A) was capable of systemic infection of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an experimental model of autoimmune diabetes. Reovirus antigen was detected in pancreatic islets of T3A-infected mice, and primary cultures of pancreatic islets from NOD mice supported T3A growth. Significantly fewer T3A-infected animals compared to uninfected controls developed diabetes. However, despite the alteration in diabetes penetrance, insulitis was evident in T3A-infected mice. These results suggest that viral infection of NOD mice alters autoimmune responses to beta-cell antigens and thereby delays development of diabetes.