Bladder cancer continues to provide urologists and researchers with a clinical and scientific challenge. Several urinary markers used in the detection and screening of patients with bladder cancer are currently under investigation. Improvements in intravesical therapy are proving to help decrease both tumor recurrence and progression in patients with high-risk disease. In patients with organ-confined, node-negative bladder cancer, radical cystectomy provides excellent local control and long-term disease-free survival. The use of an extended lymphadenectomy at the time of cystectomy may yield improved prognostic information as well as a potential survival benefit. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and less toxic combination chemotherapy regimens are offering potential improvements in patients with extravesical or nodal extension. The current methods of detection, as well as available therapeutic treatment options are reviewed.