T cell immunotherapy of prostate cancer (CaP) offers the potential for less toxic, more effective outcomes. A clinical trial was conducted in 28 patients with locally advanced or metastatic CaP to determine whether an HLA-A2 binding epitope of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154 (PSA-peptide), can induce specific T cell immunity. Patients were vaccinated either by intradermal injection of PSA-peptide and GM-CSF or by intravenous administration of autologous dendritic cells pulsed with PSA-peptide at weeks 1, 4 and 10. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was performed at weeks 4, 14, 26 and 52. Fifty percent of the patients developed positive DTH responses to PSA-peptide. The size of the DTH induration progressively increased over time in the majority of responding patients. Skin biopsies from seven DTH-positive patients were available and T cells that developed in situ were also characterized. The phenotype of recovered T cells demonstrated variable proportions of CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell populations. Cytokine analysis of PSA-peptide stimulated T cells per bead array assay exhibited specific IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha response in six of seven patients. Specific IL-4 response was observed in five patients, while IL-10 response was detected in one patient. Purified CD4-CD8+ T cells isolated from four patients demonstrated specific cytolytic activity per chromium release assay. In conclusion, immunization with PSA-peptide induced specific T cell immunity in one-half of the patients with locally advanced and hormone-sensitive, metastatic CaP. DTH-derived T cells exhibited PSA-peptide-specific cytolytic activity and predominantly expressed a type-1 cytokine profile.